The committee has ascertained that a Communist front is an organization or publication created or captured by the Communists to do the party's work in special fields. The Communist front is the greatest weapon of communism in the country today because subterfuge often makes it difficult to recognize its true Communist nature. The Communist front does not hesitate to camouflage its true purposes behind such moral and human appeals as "peace" and "civil rights'' when it serves the Communist purpose and the aims of the Soviet Union. This guide can serve no better purpose than properly identi- fying such organizations. By "outright'" Communist enterprises, the committee refers to such organizations as the Communist Party, U. S. A., whose subservience to Soviet Russia and international communism cannot be disguised. An examination of the compilation will disclose relatively few organiza- tions of this nature as compared with the hundreds of front organiza- tions set up by the Communist Party.
....The rise of Adolf Hitler to power created a new threat to the Soviet Union and to the international Communist movement. Hence the Seventh Congress of the Communist International, in 1935, gave an added impetus to the creation of front organizations under Commu- nist initiative and leadership, the chief purpose of which was to pro- tect and serve the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. The abil- ity of the Communists to ensnare large numbers and influential indi- viduals, to serve as decoys in operating these fronts, reached its high point following the Seventh Congress in 1935, HOW COMMUNIST FRONTS ARE ESTABLISHED The methods employed by the Communists in establishing and op- erating these front organizations, methods demonstrated by the various organizations herein cited, have been well summarized by a former high official of the Communist Party of the United States : A front organization is organized by the Communist Party in the following fashion : First, a number of sympathizers who are close to the party and
whom the party knows can be depended upon to carry out party orders, are
gotten together and formed into a nucleus which issues a call for the
organization of a particular front organization which the party wants to
establish. And generally after that is done a program is drawn up by the
party, which this provisional committee adopts. Then, on the basis of this
provisional pro.irram. all kinds of individuals are canvassed to become
sponsors of the organization, which is to be launched in the very near
future. A provisional secretary is appointed before the organization is
launched and in every instance in our day the secretary who was appointed was a member of the Communist Party. * * * ^jj^] ^g president of the organization we would put up some prominent public figure who was
willing to accept the presidency of the organization, generally making sure
that, if that public figure was one who would not go along with the
Communists, he was of such a type that he would be too busy to pay attention
to the affairs of the organization. * * * On the committee that would be drawn together, a sufficient number of
Communists and Communist Party sympathizers, who would carry out party
orders, was included, and out of this number a small executive committee was
organized. SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 6 • ♦ ♦ which carried on the affairs of the organization, so-called, and this small executive committee, with the secretary, really ran the organization.
And this small committee and the secretary are the instruments of the
Communist Party, with the result that when manifestos or decisions on
campaigns are made, those campaigns are ordered by the Communist Party.
(Hearings of the Special Committee on Latin-American Activities, vol. 7, pp.
4^10, Jflll, ^118.'^ MEMBERSHIP IN FRONT ORGANIZATIONS III Judging the individuals associated with Communist-front organizations,
to determine the degree of their responsibility for its activities and their
closeness to the Communist Party, one should be guided by consideration of the following categories of individuals included with- in them: 1. Members of the Communist Party who have openly avowed their affiliation. 2. Members of the Communist Party, not openly avowed, proven to be such on the basis of documentary or other proof. 3. Those accepting Communist Party discipline, either secret party members or outsiders who accept such discipline and instruction. This category may
be recognized by the regularity with which it follows the line of the
Communist Party, throughout all its variations, by the number of different
front affiliations, by the posts they occupy in these front organizations,
and by the fact that they retain their affiliation after the organization
has been publicly exposed. 4. Those who have been attracted by the high-sounding aims of the front
organization or organizations, by the prominence of its sponsors, or by a
desire to be sociable. The judgment of such persons is certainly open to
criticism just as much as if they aided in launching any other hoax...
CONSOLIDATED LIST OF ORGANIZATIONS PREVIOUSLY DESIGNATED AS WITHIN EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 9835 BY LETTERS OF NOVEMBER 24, 1947, MAY 27, 1948, APRIL 21, 1949, JULY 20, 1949, SEPTEMBER 26, 1949, AUGUST 24, 1950, AND SEPTEMBER 5, 1950, ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF SECTION 3, PART III, OF THE EXECUTIVE ORDER
Black Dragon Society. Central Japanese Association (Beikoku Chno Nipponjin Kai). Central Japanese Association of Southern California. Dai Nippon Bntoku Kai (Military Virtue Society of Japan or Military Art Society of Japan). Heimuska Kai, also known as Nokubei Heieki Gimusha Kai, Zaibel Nibonjin, Heiyaku Gimusha Kai, and Zaibei Heimusha Kai (Japanese Residing in America, Military Conscripts Association). Hinode Kai (Imperial Japanese Reservists). Hinomaru Kai (Rising Sun Flag Society—r group of Japanese war veterans). Hokubei Zaigo Shoke Dan (North American Reserve Officers Association). Japanese Association of America. Japanese Overseas Central Society (Kaigai Dobo Chuo Kai). Japanese Overseas Convention, Tokyo, Japan, 1940. Japanese Protective Association (recruiting organization). Jikyoku lin Kai (Current Affairs Association). Kibei Seineu Kai (association of United States citizens of Japanese ancestry who have returned to America after studying in Japan). Nanka Teikoku Gunyudan (Imperial Military Friends Group or Southern California War Veterans). Nichibei Kogyo Kaisha (the Great Fujii Theater). Northwest Japanese Association. Peace Movement of Ethiopia. Sakura Kai (Patriotic Society, or Cherry Association—composed of veterans of Russo-Japanese War). Shinto Temples. Sokoku Kai (Fatherland Society). Suiko Sha (Reserve Officers Association, Los Angeles).
American Nationalist Party. American National Labor Party. American National Socialist League. American National Socialist Party. American Patriots, Inc. Ausland-Organization der NSDAP, overseas branch of Nazi Party. Association of German Nationals (Reichsdeutsche Vereinigung). Central Organization of the German-American National Alliance (Deutsche- Amerikanische Einheitsfront). Citizens Protective League. Committee for Nationalist Action. Dante Alighieri Society. Federation of Italian War Veterans in the U. S. A., Inc. (Associazione Nazionale Combattenti Italiani, Fedorazione degli Stati Uniti d'America). Friends of the New Germany (Freunde des Neuen Deutschlands). German-American Bund (Amerikadeutscher Volksbund). German-American Republican League. German-American Vocational League ( Deutsche-Amerikanische Berufsgemeinschaft). Kyffhaeuser, also known as Kyffhaeuser League (Kyffhaeuser Bund), Kyffhaeuser Fellowship (Kyffhaeuser Kameradschaft). KTyffhaeuser War Relief (Kyffhaeuser Kreigshilfswerk). Lictor Society (Italian Black Shirts). Mario Morgantini Circle. National Blue Star Mothers ol America. Nationalist Action League.
Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago, Ill. Action Committee To Free Spain Now, American Association for Reconstruction in Yugoslavia, Inc. American Branch of the Federation of Greek Maritime Unions. American Committee for European Workers' Relief. American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. American Committee for Spanish Freedom. American Committee for Yugoslav Relief, Inc. American Council for a Democratic Greece, formerly known as the Greek American Council ; Greek American Committee for National Unity. American Council on Soviet Relations. American Croatian Congress. American Jewish Labor CounciL American League Against War and Fascism. American League for Peace and Democracy. American Peace Mobilization. American Polish Labor Council. American Rescue Ship Mission (a project of the United American Spanish Aid Committee). American Russian Institute, New York. American Russian Institute, Philadelphia. American Russian Institute (of San Francisco). American Russian Institute of Southern California, Los Angeles. American Slav Congress. American Youth Congress. American Youth for Democracy. Armenian Progressive League of America. Boston School for Marxist Studies, Boston, Mass. California Labor School, Inc., 216 Market Street, San Francisco, Calif. Central Council of American Women of Croatian Descent, also known as Central Council of American Croatian Women, National Council of Croatian Women. Citizens Committee To Free Earl Browder. Citizens Committee for Harry Bridges. Civil Rights Congress and its affiliated organizations, including— Civil Rights Congress for Texas. Veterans Against Discrimination of Civil Rights Congress of New York. Comite Coordinador Pro Republica Espanola. Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy. Commonwealth College, Mena, Ark. Communist Party, U. S. A., its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates, including — Citizens Committee of the Upper West Side (New York City). Committee To Aid the Fighting South. Daily Worker Press Club. Dennis Defense Committee. Labor Research Association, Inc. Southern Negro Youth Congress. United May Day Committee. United Negro and Allied Veterans of America. Yiddisher Kultur Farband. Communist Political Association, its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates, including— Florida Press and Educational League. Peoples Educational and Press Association of Texas. Virginia League for Peoples Education. Connecticut State Youth Conference. Congress of American Revolutionary Writers. Congress of American Women. Council on African Affairs. Council for Pan-American Democracy. Detroit Youth Assembly. Emergency Conference To Save Spanish Refugees (founding body of the North American Spanish Aid Committee). V SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 163
Friends of the Soviet Union. George Washington Carver School, New York City. Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee. Hollywood Writers Mobilization for Defense. Hungarian-American Council for Democracy. Independent Socialist League. International Labor Defense. International Workers Order, its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and afBliates, including — American-Russian Fraternal Society. Carpatho-Russian Peoples Society. Cervantes Fraternal Society. Croatian Benevolent Fraternity. Finnish-American Mutual Aid Society. Garibaldi American Fraternal Society. Hellenic-American Brotherhood. Hungarian Brotherhood. Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order. People's Radio Foundation, Inc. Polonia Society of the IWO. Romanian-American Fraternal Society. Serbian-American Fraternal Society. Slovak Workers Society. Ukrainian-American Fraternal Union. Jefferson School of Social Science, New York City. Jewish Peoples Committee. Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee. Joseph Weydemeyer School of Social Science, St. Louis, Mo. Labor Youth League. League of American Writers. Macedonian-American People's League. Michigan Civil Rights Federation. Michigan School of Social Science. National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners. National Committee To Win the Peace. National Conference on American Policy in China and the Far East (a conference called by the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy). National Council of Americans of Croatian Descent. National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. National Negro Congress. Nature Friends of America (since 1933). Negro Labor Victory Committee. New Committee for Publications. North American Committee To Aid Spanish Democracy. North American Spanish Aid Committee. Ohio School of Social Sciences. Oklahoma Committee To Defend Political Prisoners. Pacific Northwest Labor School, Seattle, Wash. Partido del Pueblo of Panama (operating in the Canal Zone). Peoples Educational Association (incorporated under name Los Angeies ±t;aucational Association, Inc.), also known as Peoples Educational Center, Peoples University, People's School. People's Institute of Applied Religion. , Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art. Photo League (New York City). Progressive German-Americans, also known as Progressive German-Americans of Chicago. Proletarian Party of America. Revolutionary Workers League, samuei Auaiiia Sv-cool, Boston, Mass. Schappes Defense Committee. Schneiderman-Darcy Detecoo Committee. School of Jewish Studies, New York City. Seattle Labor School, Seattle, Wash.
Serbian Vidovdan Council. Slovenian-American National Council. Socialist Workers Party, including American Committee for European Workers' Relief. Socialist Youth League. Tom Paine School of Social Science, Philadelphia, Pa. Tom Paine School of Westchester, N. Y. Union of American Croatians. United American Spanish Aid Committee. United Committee of South Slavic Americans. United Harlem Tenants and Consumers Organization. Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Walt Whitman School of Social Science, Newark, N. J. Washington Bookshop Association. Washington Committee for Democratic Action. Washington Commonwealth Federation. Wisconsin Conference on Social Legislation. Workers Alliance. Workers Party, including Socialist Youth League. Young Communist League.
Communist Party, U. S. A., its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates. Communist Political Association, its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates, including — Florida Press and Educational League. Peoples Educational and Press Association of Texas. Virginia League for Peoples Education. German-American Bund. Independent Socialist League. Partido del Pueblo of Panama (operating in the Canal Zone). Socialist Workers Party. Workers Party. Young Communist League.
Organizations which have "adopted a policy of advocating or approving the commission of acts of force and violence to deny others their rights under the Constitution of the United States"
American Christian Nationalist Party. Associated Klans of America. Association of Georgia Klans. Columbians. ' Knights of the White Camellia. Ku Klux Klan. Original Southern Klans, Inc. Protestant War Veterans of the United States, Inc. Silver Shirt Legion of America.
Organizations which "seek to alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means"
Communist Party, U. S. A., its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates. Communist Political Association, its subdivisions, subsidiaries and affiliates, including— Florida Press and Educational League. Peoples Educational and Press Association of Texas. Virginia League for Peoples Education. Independent Socialist League. Industrial Workers of the World. Nationalist Party of Puerto Rico. Partido del Pueblo of Panama (operating in the Canal Zone), -•« Socialist Workers Party. Workers Party. Young Communist League.
"Marx and Engels never tried to refute their opponents with argument. They insulted, ridiculed, derided, slandered, and traduced them, and in the use of these methods their followers are not less expert. Their polemic is directed never against the argument of the opponent, but always against his person." - Socialism