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Thursday, May 8, 2014

The War Called Peace - The Soviet Peace Offensive

Peace Group Glossary

American Committee on East-West Accord (ACEWA) - 227 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, D.C. 20002 (202/546-1700] is incorporated as a tax-exempt "independent educational organization" and says it is "aimed at improving East/West relations, with special focus on U.S.-Soviet relations." ACEWA and its leaders have consistently urged U.S. trade, foreign policy and arms control concessions to the USSR in order to promote "détente."

ACEWA's co-chairmen are Seyrnour Melman, 74, also co-chairman of SANE, who provided a strident attack on the concept of U.S. defense at a March 28, 1982 citizen conference sponsored by Rep. Ted Weiss (D4.Y.); and George F. Kennan, architect of the strategy of "containment" which in effect meant that the United States would not contest Soviet control of Eastern Europe) and who is presently organizing a campaign for a U.S. policy to never be the first to use nuclear weapons in any conflict. Another Kennan proposal being currently promoted by ACEWA s for the United States to immediately reduce its number of nuclear weapons by 50 percent.

ACEWA's co-directors are Jeanne Mattison and Carl M. Marcy, for 20 ears chief of staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and hen a Ford Administration member of the General Advisory Committee on Arms Control. In 1976, Marcy was editor-in-chief of the Center for International Policy (CIP), and a member )f the CIP board of advisers.

ACEWA's newsletter, East-West Outlook, edited by Marcy, carries articles promoting extreme scare concepts such as that any use of nuclear weapons will bring total extinction of all life on earth and that it s therefore the responsibility of Americans to take the initiative in getting rid of nuclear weapons.

ACEWA's influence in the business and academic community is shown in a report on U.S. peace organizations prepared for potential donors in January 1982 by Ann B. Zill of the Stewart Mott Foundation. Zill wrote:

"In the late April to early May period, the Committee will have its annual meeting at some point when George Kennan, John Kenneth Galbraith, Don Kendall (Pepsi Cola) and Bob Schmidt (Control Data) can all attend. They will again discuss the...Kennan proposal and will hear from some high ranking government official, possibly off the record. The Committee does have to be careful about taking positions that would cause its conservative members to resign."

The Zill report noted that ACEWA had received two years' of funding from the Ford Foundation for a series of meetings with all the former ambassadors to the Soviet Union, but curiously "these probably won't be publicized."

Another current ACEWA project is the production of 60-second radio spots for broadcast during morning and evening "drive-time" periods. Zill reported these will vary in approach "from a soft sell approach (we all have common interests, don't we) to hard sell (do you know the Soviets have two aircraft to [our] 14)." Mark Lewis, formerly with the U.S. Information Agency (USIA), Zill reported, was working on the radio spots and "monies have been received to date from the Rockefeller Brothers and the Ruth Mott Fund."

In its newsletter, East-West Outlook, [March-April 1982, Vol. 5, No. 2], ACEWA boasts that among the 350 endorsers of the Kennedy-Hatfield Nuclear Freeze Resolution introduced in the Senate on March 10, 1982, are the following ACEWA members:

George Ball, Senior Managing Director, Lehman Brothers and former Under Secretary of State; Hodding Carter III, Public Broadcasting System, and former Assistant Secretary of State; Bernard T. Feld, chairman of the executive committee of the Pugwash Conferences, Professor of Physics, MIT, and editor, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists; Joseph Filner, Noblenet International; Roger Fisher, Professor of Law, Harvard Law School, and former consultant to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for National Security; J. William Full-bright, former chairman, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; Marshall Goldman, associate director, Russian Research Center and Professor of Economics, Wellesley College; Jerome Grossman, president, Council for a Liveable World; W. Averill Harriman, former U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union; Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, S.J., president, University of Notre Dame; Stanley Hoffman, Professor of Government and chairman, Center for European Studies, Harvard University; Townsend Hoopes, former Under Secretary of the Air Force; George F. Kennan, professor emeritus, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, and former U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia; George Kistiakowsky, professor emeritus of chemistry, Harvard University, and former Science Advisor to Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson; Philip Klutz-nick, Former Secretary of Commerce; Wassily Leontief, Professor of Economics, New York University and Nobel Laureate; David Linebaugh, Foreign Service Officer (Ret.), and former Deputy Assistant Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Dr. Bernard Lown, Professor of Cardiology, Harvard School of Public Health and co-president, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW); Carl Marcy, co-director, ACEWA; George McGovern, former U.S. Senator; Donald McHenry, professor, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, and former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations; Dr. Avery Post, president, United Church of Christ; George Rathjens, Professor of Political Science, MIT, and former director of Weapons Systems Evaluation Division, Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA); Harrison Salisbury, Soviet Scholar and author; Erwin A. Salk, attorney; Herbert Scoville, Jr., former Deputy Director for Research and Assistant Director of Scientific Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, and Assistant Director, U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; J. David Singer, Professor of National Security Studies, The Brookings Institution; Jeremy J. Stone, director, Federation of American Scientists; William P. Thompson, Stated Clerk, General Assembly, United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.; Jerome B. Wiesner, past president, M.I.T., and Science Adviser to President Kennedy; Adam Yarmolinsky, former counselor to the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Herbert F. York, former U.S. negotiator for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)-1501 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, PA. 19102 [215/242-7000] was formed in 1917 by a group of 14 socialist Quakers to aid draft resisters. AFSC has been penetrated and used by Communists since the early 1920s when it sent Jessica Smith, who later married Soviet spies Harold Ware and John Abt (since the 1950s CPUSA general counsel and a member of the CPUSA Political Committee) to the Soviet Union to determine famine relief needs in Russia exacerbated by civil war and the collectivization of farmland.

Since the 1960s, the AFSC has supported revolutionary terrorist groups such as the Vietcong, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and the Central American Castroite groups. The theory behind AFSC's support of terrorist "national liberation movements" was outlined by Jim Bristol in a pamphlet published by AFSC in 1972 and continuously reprinted entitled "Non-violence: Not First for Export." Because of AFSC's leadership role in organizing support for terrorist revolutionary groups, but in the present disarmament campaign initiated through the USSR's covert action apparatus for political warfare, a closer look at AFSC's justification of violence is appropriate.

In the AFSC pamphlet, Bristol presents the totalitarian revolutionary goal in the most glowing terms as a utopia:

"a human society where the worth of the individual will be recognized and each person treated with respect....Land reform measures will be enacted....Education will be provided for every member of the -society;....There will be employment for all. Discrimination because of race, colour or creed will end. Universal medical care will be provided."

AFSC's pamphlet asserts that the United States and other Free World countries are guilty of a bizarre "terrorism" which it calls the "violence of the status quo" and irrationally defines this in the broadest possible terms not only as every possible social ill, but also personal or social discomfort. In the words of the pamphlet, this "violence of the status quo" is:

"the agony of millions who in varying degrees suffer hunger, poverty, ill-health, lack of education, non-acceptance by their fellow men. It is compounded of slights and insults, of rampant injustice, of exploitation, of police brutality, of a thousand indignities from dawn to dusk and through the night."

While most would define terrorism as "a violent attack on a non-combatant segment of the community for the purpose of intimidation, to achieve a political or military objective," AFSC's pamphlet excuses terrorism in the following terms:

" used to signify violent action on the part of oppressed peoples in Asia, Africa, Latin America or within the black ghettos of America, as they take up the weapons of violence in a desperate effort to wrest for themselves the freedom and justice denied them by the systems that presently control their lives. What is so easily (one suspects, often deliberately) overlooked is the fact that the regimes rebelled against are the incarnation of a greater violence than any used in the struggle against them.

"before we deplore terrorism, it is essential for us to recognize whose 'terrorism' came first....It is easy to recognize the violence of the revolutionary when he strikes out against the inequities and cruelties of the established order. What millions of middle-class and other non-poor fail to realize is that they are themselves accomplices each day in meeting [sic] out inhuman, all-pervading violence upon their fellows."

After this justification of the concept of class warfare, which makes "permissible" terrorist attacks on civilians since they are part of the "oppressive class," the AFSC pamphlet says that U.S. activists should not concern themselves with what sort of violent tactics revolutionaries utilize to achieve their ends. Instead, they should work to disarm the United States and for economic warfare against the U.S.'s "oppressive" allies. In its words:

"Instead of trying to devise nonviolent strategy and tactics for revolutionaries in other lands, we will bend every effort to defuse militarism in our own land and to secure the withdrawal of American economic investment in oppressive regimes in other parts of the world."

Following these justifications of terrorist violence by Third World "national liberation movements" in the United States and in foreign countries, the AFSC pamphlet concludes with a call for revolution in the United States, saying:

"Revolution then is needed first and foremost in the United States, thoroughgoing revolution, not a mild palliative."

Similar sentiments were expressed in an article in the March 1982 issue of Fellowship by Russell Johnson, Senior Program Associate of the NE Regional Office of the AFSC, and for many years its Peace Secretary. Describing his visits to Poland (1959), North Vietnam (1967), and Cuba (1969), he determined the North Vietnamese were "heroic people, small in stature, but magnificent in spirit... a struggle to free their country from foreign domination;" stated that the fear of Communism by "the dominant interests in the United States...has little to do with issues of democracy and human rights, but much to do with private property and with access to mineral and petroleum resources and to cheap land and labor. Any nationalization of a country's wealth threatens these private, privileged interests."

Johnson also cited a Cuban telling him in 1969, "If you North Americans could go back to your own country and work to disarm it and to end its counter-revolutionary activity, then maybe we wouldn't have to carry weapons here in Cuba."

As a result of AFSC support for the Vietcong, the Philadelphia Meeting of the Society of Friends withdrew its financial support from the AFSC.

The AFSC worked in collaboration with the World Peace Council against U.S. aid to South Vietnam, sending "observers" to participate in WPC meetings. AFSC's six key program areas are disarmament (Terry Provance) and human rights; global justice (targeting South Korea and Central America); the Middle East (where the AFSC supports the cause of the terrorist Palestine Liberation Organization, PLO); Southern Africa (where AFSC supports the pro-Soviet terrorist movements in Namibia and South Africa); Indochina (supporting the pro-Soviet Hanoi government in Vietnam and its puppet regime in Cambodia); and opposing registration for a military draft.

The director of the AFSC's Disarmament Program since the revival of the international disarmament campaign in the mid-1970s has been Terry Provance, a WPC activist and founding member of the U.S. Peace Council (USPC) who is also a leader of the Mobilization for Survival (MFS) and is active with the World Information Service on Energy (WISE). Accompanied by two foreign Communist WPC activists, Nico Schouten, leader of the Netherlands "Ban the Neutron Bomb" organization, and East German Peace Council head Walter Rumpel, Provance addressed a MFS rally at the U.S. Capitol on October 29, 1979.

AFSC operates a lobbying arm, the Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL) headed by Ed Snyder, who has played a key role in developing strategy for pressure on Congress against the U.S. defense budget, and particularly against development or deployment of new weapons systems.

Another AFSC project, the National Action/Research on the Military/Industrial Complex (NARMIC), serves as the AFSC's "intelligence-gathering arm." NARMIC works closely with the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), the North American Congress On Latin America (NACLA), a pro-Cuba research group, and other anti-defense and armament research organizations.

Arms Control Association (ACA)- operating from 11 Dupont Circle, Ninth Floor, Washington, D.C. 20036 [202/797-6450], with a 1982 budget of some $200,000, wields considerable influence through its "educational" programs that include 25 or more briefings annually. According to a report dated February 22, 1982 by Ann Zill of the Stewart Mott Foundation, ACA briefings are attended yearly by between 700 and 1,000 "academic and diplomatic people, government personnel and afficiandos [sic]."

ACA's leaders include William Kincaid and former CIA official Herbert "Pete" Scoville. Scoville served as the CIA's Assistant Director of Scientific Intelligence and as Deputy Director for Research, and later was Assistant Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. He has been active with the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) since the 1960s in anti-NATO and disarmament projects, and is an advisor to the Center for Defense Information (CDI). In January 1978, Scoville participated in the Washington, D.C. meetings of the WPC Bureau.

For 1982, ACA is sending "editorial advisories" to 1,000 medium to large newspapers in the United States on three issues: "How can a nuclear war start? What would the effects be? And how can one be prevented?" Prevention according to ACA means arms control agreements such as the rejected SALT II treaty in which the United States sends "signals" of peaceful intent to the USSR through major concessions.

Business Executives Move for New National Priorities (BEM)-was founded in 1967 as Business Executives Move for Peace in Vietnam by Henry Niles, then chairman of the board of Baltimore Life Insurance Company and father-in-law of New Left theoretician Staughton Lynd. BEM's name and targeting was changed in 1975, following the Communist conquest of South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.

BEM serves to mobilize businessmen who have commercial dealings with the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact states for political action in favor of "détente," against U.S. defense modernization, and for a foreign policy of "non-intervention" against Soviet aggression.

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)-is the largest "ban the bomb" movement in Great Britain formed as part of the drive for a nuclear test ban treaty in the late 1950s and early 1960s. As of 1982, seven members of the CND national committee were publicly known members of the British Communist Party. With strong backing from the left wing of the British Labour Party, the CND has revived as a key element in the present anti-NATO and anti-U.S. disarmament drive.

Center for Defense Information (CDI)-operating from Capitol Gallery, West Wing -303, 600 Maryland Avenue, SW., Washington, D.C. [202/484-0490] was formed in 1973 as a project of the tax-exempt Fund for Peace (FFP). CDI and its sister FFP projects-the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) and the Center for International Policy (CIP)-are spin-offs from projects initiated by the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), the Washington-based, internationally active revolutionary think-tank. CDI director Gene R. LaRocque has worked closely with IPS cofounder Richard Barnet, and longtime IPS fellow Earl C. Ravenal remains as a CDI advisor.

CDI'S military members include former military officers, intelligence officers and academics who share attitudes of harsh antagonism toward the U.S. national defense, the U.S. military, the NATO alliance and American foreign policy.

CDI'S former military officers are frequently quoted by the Soviet propaganda organs to legitimize their attacks on NATO and U.S. defense forces as trigger-happy dangers to peace.

Although CDI states it "supports a strong defense but opposes excessive expenditures or forces," it has opposed every major new U.S. weapons system developed during the past decade-from the B-1 bomber and Trident submarine to cruise missiles and neutron warheads- as upsetting the U.S.-Soviet strategic balance while at the same time minimizing the Soviet military build up. In 1979, in cooperation with the Members of Congress for Peace Through Law Education Fund, CDI financed a 27-minute film, "War Without Winners", to promote the disarmament lobby's claim that "there is no defense against nuclear war," on which basis they also oppose civil defense programs, anti-ballistic missile defenses and development of satellite-based beam weapons. The film was produced by Harold Wilens, chairman of the board of the Factory Equipment Corporation, CDI advisor, and a leader of Businessmen Move for New National Priorities (BEM); and its director was Haskell Wexler, the revolutionary film director who in 1975 produced a propaganda film for the terrorist Weather Underground Organization consisting of interviews with five fugitive leaders including Kathy Boudin.
The CDI film project director was its senior staff member Arthur L. Kanegis, now CDI's media director. Late in March 1982, Kanegis, of the Georgetown Center for Strategic and International Studies, was interviewed for National Public Radio's "All Things Considered" news show dismissing evidence of Soviet use of nerve gas and biological toxins in Afghanistan and Cambodia.

CDI's newsletter, Defense Monitor, publishes carefully selected data that consistently presents the USSR as a weak opponent. For example, a recent issue (Vol. XI, Number 1, 1982) asserts "there is no evidence to support the notion of growing Soviet 'geopolitical momentum' " and points to setbacks in Egypt, Somalia, Guinea, Bangladesh and India without noting gains in Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, South Yemen, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Nicaragua, Grenada, Syria, Iraq, Libya, etc. And it ignores the implications of the unprecedented joint visit to India of Soviet Defense Minister Marshall Dimitri Ustinov (who had never before travelled outside the USSR and Warsaw Pact countries) and Admiral Gorsakov, the chief of the Soviet fleet.

According to the Zill report (February 22, 1982), CDI's current plans include "hosting, along with the Washington Interreligious Staff Council, a two-day conference for 100 religious leaders" to be presented with CDI's view of the military balance by 1990; Soviet military capacity and limitation; and the future of arms control. The speakers were to include "a representative of Eugene Rostow, Senator Warner and Representatives Les Aspin and Ron Dellums." 
Indications that CDI, in its consistent pattern of attacking the U.S. military while offering excuses for the Soviet build-up, may be serving as a "center for defense disinformation" include not only Gene LaRocque's 1975 claims of U.S. violations with nuclear weapons off-loading agreements with Japan and his stay at the Institute of the U.S.A. and Canada in Moscow, but his more recent overt collaboration with the World Peace Council's "generals and admirals for peace" grouping including Nino Pasti and Gert Bastian. In this light, the Zill report stated:

"On June 15 and 16, 1982, during the UN Special Session on Disarmament, CDI will host a conference of retired military officers from NATO and Warsaw Pact countries to discuss how a nuclear war would be fought/avoided, a first-time ever event. Hyman Rickover will be approached about participating."

Center for Development Policy (CDP)-418 Tenth Street, SW, Washington, D.C. 20003 [202/547-6406] is directed by Lindsay Mattison, who formerly served on the staff of Business Executives Move for Peace in Vietnam (BEM) and as co-director of the CDI's sister project, the Center for International Policy (CIP) where in 1976 his colleagues (CIP staff, advisers and consultants) included Susan Weber, then editor of an IPS publication who had previously spent five years working for Soviet Life, an official Soviet propaganda publication whose American staff are registered individually as Soviet agents under the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act; Richard Barnet, IPS; Orlando Letelier, IPS; David Aaron, Senate Intelligence Committee, aide to Senator Walter Mondale and eventually President Carter's Assistant National Security Advisor; Anthony Lake, Barbara Watson and Joseph Nye, all of whom were appointed top Carter State Department officials in 1977; and William G. Miller, staff director of the Senate Intelligence Committee.
CDP attacks U.S. investment and development in Third World countries as exploitation. CDP particularly opposes development of nuclear energy in countries allied with the United States, and its 1982 prime targets include the Philippines, Taiwan, Guatemala and Pakistan. In the disarmament field, it links nuclear power to nuclear weapons.

According to the Zill report, CDP works with U.S. groups including the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA), Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), World Information Service on Energy (WISE), Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS), and Ralph Nader's Critical Mass. In its anti-Taiwan efforts, Zill reported CDP "deals with the expatriot community and Members of Congress like [Senator Edward] Kennedy and [Representative Steve] Solarz."

Center for International Policy (CIP)-based at 120 Maryland Avenue, NE, Washington, D. C. 20002 [202/ 544-4666] is one of the projects spun-off from the Institute for Policy Studies in the mid-1970s and operating under the tax-exempt aegis of the Fund for Peace (FFP). CIP's bias was shown in its 1976 statement showing its opposition to all U.S.-supported opposition to Soviet aggression. Said CIP:

"Intervention in the domestic affairs of Chile, military and economic support of dictatorships in Greece, Korea, Brazil and elsewhere, and an effort to involve the U.S. in Angola-these are but a few of the actions undertaken or proposed by the American government in the name of U.S. national interests....

"The American citizen has little opportunity to play a role in such policy determinations. 

Yet it is the ordinary citizen who pays the price of foreign policy failures-in blood, in economic hardship, and in higher taxes CIP called its role an effort "to develop public participation in the formulation of public policy;" and said it works toward this goal through "a network of journalists, former diplomats, and international officials in the United States and abroad" who report to the CIP-a most unusual apparatus for developing "public participation in the formulation of public policy."

In 1976, while FFP president Nicholas Nyari was a delegate to the World Peace Council's "World Conference to End the Arms Race, for Disarmament and Détente" in Helsinki, CIP staffers included Donald L. Ranard, a 30-year career State Department official who had been director of the Office of Korean Affairs at the time of his retirement and is an opponent of South Korea; Lindsay Mattison, formerly with Business Executives Move for Peace in Vietnam (BEM) and the Coalition for a New Foreign and Military Policy (CNFMP); Carl M. Marcy, for 20 years chief of staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and then a legislative counsel at the State Department; William Goodfellow, then director of research of the pro-Hanoi Indochina Resource Center and board member of the Campaign for a Democratic Foreign Policy; James Morrell, a founder of the Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars and staffer of the Indochina Resource Center; Mary K. Lynch; Warren Unna, a Washington Post reporter for 18 years; and Susan Weber, a former copy editor of Soviet Life, an official propaganda publication of the USSR whose American staff, working from the Soviet Embassy, are individually registered as Soviet agents under the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, and then manager of the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) publication, The Elements.
CIP's 1976 consultants included David Aaron, aide to Senator Walter Mondale and staffer of the Senate Intelligence Committee, Carter Transition Team liaison to the National Security Council and Carter Assistant National Security Advisor; IPS cofounder Richard Barnet; Tom Dine, Senior Analyst for Defense and International Affairs of the Senate Budget Committee; Richard Falk, IADL activist, participant in the WPC's 1969 Stockholm Conference on Vietnam, and a leader of the Lawyers Committee on U.S. Policy toward Vietnam; Anthony Lake, later a top Carter State Department official; William G. Miller, Senate Intelligence Committee staff director; Joseph Nye, later the Carter State Department official responsible for policy on exports of nuclear power technology to the Third World; and Murray Woldman, staff consultant of Members of Congress for Peace through Law (MCPL).

Among CIP's board of advisers were many former officials who subsequently supported the SALT II treaty and the Nuclear Freeze. The CIP advisers included Tom Asher (husband of Carter ACTIONNISTA assistant director Marge Tabankin); William Attwood, president and publisher, Newsday, former U.S. ambassador; Joel I. Brooke, retired partner, Elmo Roper & Associates; Harlan Cleveland, former Assistant Secretary of State for International Affairs, former U.S. ambassador; Benjamin V. Cohen, former adviser to President Franklin Roosevelt; Adrian W. DeWind, former legislative counsel, U.S. Treasury; Arthur J. Goldberg, former U.S. Supreme Court Justice and U.N. ambassador; Phillip C. Jessup, former U.S. member of the International Court of Justice; Leon H. Keyserling, former chairman of the Economic Advisory Council, more recently active with IPS and its offshoots and with the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC); Wassily Leontief, Nobel laureate in economics; Orlando Letelier, then director of the IPS Transnational Institute, former Allende government U.S. ambassador and defense minister, Soviet agent and source for the Senate Intelligence Committee; Carl M. Marcy; Edwin M. Martin, former U.S. ambassador and U.S. representative to the World Food Conference; Malcolm C. Moos, president emeritus, University of Minnesota; Stewart R. Mott; Joseph Palmer II, former Director General of the Foreign Service; Stephen R. Paschke, treasurer, Fund for Peace; Chester Ronning, former Canadian ambassador; Terry Sanford, president, Duke University and former governor of North Carolina; Edward Snyder, executive secretary, Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL); Harrison M. Symmes, president, Wyndham College, former U.S. ambassador; Barbara Watson, former administrator, Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State (who headed that bureau in the Carter Administration); William Watts, president, Potomac Associates, former staff secretary, National Security Council; Susan Weyerhauser, trustee, FFP; Abraham Wilson, partner, Kadel, Wilson and Potts; Charles W. Yost, senior fellow, Brookings Institution, former U.S. deputy representative to the U.N.

At present, one-half of CIP's 1982 $220,000 budget is derived from a $100,000 grant from the Reynolds Foundation and targeted to its Indochina Project, a successor to the former Indochina Resource Center which dissolved at the time Vietnamese spy David Truong was arrested. The project is completing a study of "yellow rain"-Soviet nerve gas supplied to Vietnamese forces and used in Cambodia. But CIP's goal, according to the Zill report, is "to heal the wounds of war and to develop greater understanding between the U.S. and Southeast Asia; to promote an end to the economic embargo; and to work toward diplomatic recognition." CIP argues that a lack of U.S. recognition and aid to Vietnam, Laos and Vietnam-occupied Cambodia is "pushing these countries into the arms of the Soviet Union."

Christian Peace Conference (CPC)-is one of the most influential Soviet-controlled international fronts. The CPC is headquartered in Prague, but also has a center in East Berlin. Its leading body, the All-Christian Peace Assembly (ACPA), meets in Prague. The Yearbook on International Communist Affairs (Hoover Institution Press) described the CPC as "under Soviet domination since 1968" and as operating "in tandem with the WPC."

The CPC's top official at the United Nations is Philip Oke, who takes a leading role in U.N. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) activities for disarmament and in support of Soviet-backed terrorist "liberation movements" such as the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and African National Congress (ANC). In the 1960s, Oke was active with the W.E.B. DuBois Clubs, which was the youth affiliate of the Communist Party, U.S.A. In the early 1970s, he attended closed sessions of the CPUSA national convention in New York.

Oke is a member of the U.S. Ad Hoc Committee on USA-USSR Dialogue, Inc., which held a meeting in the U.S. Congress featuring some of 25 "Soviet citizens and several of their U.S. hosts from the cities of Austin, Pasadena and Toledo for questioning on the seven days spent together while visiting in private homes." The members of the Committee were listed as including: Carol Pendell, president, International President, WILPF; Rev. Dwain C. Epps, vice president, executive secretary of the U.N. Headquarters Liaison Office of the World Council of Churches (WCC); Rev. John Moyer, secretary, United Presbyterian Church; Rev. Robert McClean, treasurer, director, Department of Peace and World Order of the Board of Church and Society of the United Methodist Church; Michael Brainerd, Citizen Exchange Corps; Richard Deats, Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR); Howard Frazier,

Promoting Enduring Peace (PEP); Edna McCallion, Church Women United (CWU); Katherine Camp, WILPF; Philip Oke, CPC; Laurama Pixton, AFSC; Joe Byrne Sills, formerly of the United Nations Association; Stephen Thiermann, Friends World Committee for Consultation (FWCC); Delmar Wedel, formerly 01 the YMCA National Council; Hermar Will, FOR; and James Will, Christians Associated for Relations with East em Europe.

Christic Institute-operating from 1324 N. Capitol Street, Washington, D.C. 20002 [202/797-8106] was formed in 1981 as a public interest litigation group by attorneys and activists, a number of them formerly with the Quixhote Center, who had worked on the Silkwood and Harrisburg 8 cases now handling an anti-MX lawsuit filed the Silkwood and Harrisberg 8 cases now handling an anti-MX lawsuit filed in Salt Lake City; Lewis Pitts, a Regional Vice President of the National Lawyers Guild (NLG) representing Communist Workers Party members in a Greensboro, N.C. lawsuit; Bill Davis and Wally Katuboski who went to El Salvador prior to filing an amicus brief in support of a suit by Rep. George Crockett and others handled by the Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR) attempting to rule U.S. military aid to El Salvador is an unconstitutional violation of the War Powers Act.

Clergy and Laity Concerned (CALC)- with national headquarters at 198 Broadway, Suite 302, New York, NY 10038 [212/964-6730] was formed in 1965 by the National Council of Churches, but first became widely known in 1967 when it cosponsored a White House demonstration in conjunction with the Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, a coalition strongly influenced by Communists and found by the House Committee on Internal Security in 1970 to have "operated from its inception with significant international Communist support" through the World Peace Council. CALC's former leader, Rev. Richard Fernandez, served on the New Mobe Steering Committee.
In January 1970, CALC described its goals in these terms:

"what we are about today is not simply an end to the war in Vietnam, but a struggle against American imperialism and exploitation in just about every corner of the world....Our task is to join those who are angry and who hate the corporate power which the United States presently represents, and to attempt, in our struggle, to liberate not only black, brown and yellow men in every corner of the world, but more importantly, to help liberate our own nation from its reactionary and exploitative policies."

CALC's present co-director, John Collins, was an endorser of the U.S. Peace Council's November 1981 national conference. On February 17, 1982, CALC released an "open letter to Congress" signed by 400 religious activists and leaders opposing U.S. aid to El Salvador. With the AFSC, CALC sponsored a U.S. speaking tour by nine European disarmament leaders. According to the Zill report, CALC "has been most active in the formation and nurturing of the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign, participating on the steering committee and involving a number of the 42 CALC chapters in the Freeze Conferences....There is a new CALC chapter in Amarillo, Texas, (home of Bishop Matthiesen and the Amarillo Pantex Plant, DOE's assembly plant for all war-heads), and it is serving as a center for job references, [and] counseling of the former atomic workers who have left their jobs on principle, and for a conversion study and vigils."

The Zill report noted that CALC's present mailing list had dwindled to 2,000 names from 50,000 during the anti-Vietnam protests until four years ago when CALC hired Liz Broder's direct mail firm to rebuild the list now at 20,000 names.

Other CALC program areas include South Africa and the "politics of food" (CALC provided the initial U.S. coordination for the campaign against the Nestle Corporation's infant formula).

Coalition for a New Foreign and Military Policy (CNFMP) -based at 120 Maryland Avenue, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002 [202/546-8400] is a lobbying coalition and information clearinghouse which was formed to lobby for U.S. cutoff of aid to South Vietnam.

CNFMP states that by a "new" policy, it means one "based on...the need to cooperate with nations of highly different political systems." CNFMP's programs call for U.S. recognition and economic aid to Communist and pro-Soviet regimes in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Angola. Other programs call for aid to revolutionary and anti-U.S. terrorist movements by a cut off of U.S. aid and economic relations with the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, South Africa, El Salvador, Chile, etc. This indicates that CNFMP's phrase "nations of highly different political systems" is code for "Communist totalitarian regimes."

CNFMP is a major distributor of propaganda originated from the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) and Center for Defense Information (CDI), and works closely with the two groups. Steve Daggett, on the IPS staff for three years, in 1981 became CNFMP's Budget Priorities Coordinator.

CNFMP's slogans and projects closely parallel those of the World Peace Council (WPC) and WPC delegations to Washington hold meetings with CNFMP. With a mailing list of some 12,000 presently, CNFMP ambitiously has hired Liz Broder to build its list "to upwards of one-half million eventually."

On February 26, 1982, CNFMP sponsored an all-day conference, Nuclear Arms and National Security, on issues for the U.N. Second Special Session on Disarmament (SSDII). CNFMP is supporting the "nuclear freeze" campaign, and is working with the AFSC's NARMIC on a "Guns versus Butter" slide show.

Among the members of the CNFMP's Disarmament Working Group (DWG) are the IPS Militarism and Disarmament Project, NARM IC, Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR), War Resisters League (WRL) and U.S. Peace Council (USPC). Prior to the formation of the USPC, another CPUSA front, the National Center to Slash Military Spending, participated in the CNFMPIDWG. After formation of the USPC, that front dissolved and recommended its members and supporters become active in both CNFMP and the USPC. Members of the CNFMP include WILPF, WSP, WRL, SANE, CALC, CIP, BEM, and AFSC.

Committee for National Security (CNS)-1742 N Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 [202/833-3140], according to IPS, its co-founder and senior fellow, Richard Barnet "played a major role in organizing" CNS "to mobilize broad support for détente to counter the voices calling for a return to confrontation and intervention." Other CNS leaders include Paul Warnke, an IPS trustee and SALT II negotiator for the Carter Administration; and former CIA Director William Colby.

The ZilI report noted Warnke was working with ACEWA on a task force to implement the Kennan proposals on nuclear weapons cuts. CNS has a Global Task Force with Dick Ullman and Gus Speth on population and development issues; and has received funding from the Cos Cob Foundation "for work on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty [and]...a speakers' bureau to stress that this treaty is a part of the [Nuclear] Freeze Campaign."

Zill reported that Nancy Ramsey, former legislative director for WILPF and then coordinator of Americans for SALT before joining CNS, had resigned now that "CNS is off to a good start," has considerable media attention, and is raising a sustaining bud get of $300,000 a year.

Council for a Liveable World (CLW)-with headquarters at 100 Maryland Avenue, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002 [202/543-4100], was formed in 1962 by the late Leo Szilard "to combat the menace of nuclear war." CLW's major method is to promote U.S. disarmament concessions to the USSR and "non-intervention" against Soviet aggression. Szilard, who died in 1964, called for establishment of a "U.N. Peace Court" at a 1961 Pugwash meeting in Vermont, which would have the power to pass a death sentence on any U.S. citizen or official it deemed guilty of violating "peace" and urged it have power to deputize any and all Americans to execute its sentences. CLW's present stance is much lower in profile.
CLW's February 1982 fundraising appeal commences, "The Reagan Administration is launching a massive escalation of the nuclear arms race." The letter, signed by George Kistiakowsky, chief science adviser to President Eisenhower, says CLW's chief targets are the MX missile and B-1 bomber, and states, "We're on Capitol Hill every day, working to reestablish arms control talks, fighting the proliferation of nuclear weapons, lobbying for nuclear arms control agreements." CLW is also targeting U.S. chemical weapons funding and campaigning for across-the-board defense cuts, with a "media blitz" slated for late May when the Senate will be considering the chemical weapons issue.

Lobbying tactics will include meetings with newspaper editorial boards and Congressional District Office meetings in key states including New York, Illinois and Florida.

On May ii, 1982, CLW and Physicians for Social Responsibility are co-sponsoring a conference on the medical effects of nuclear war in Washington, D.C. The group is in the midst of a 700,000 piece direct mail membership drive to build its list of 15,000.

The CLW Education Fund's tax-exempt status is being used to cover contributions to finance the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Clearinghouse in St. Louis pending its own tax-exemption.

The CLW board of directors includes Jerome Grossman, president; Ruth Adams, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists; Michael Allen, attorney; Bernard Feld, MIT; Roger Fisher, Harvard; Maurice Fox, MIT; Jerome Frank, Johns Hopkins; John Kenneth Galbraith; George Kistiakowsky; Admiral John M. Lee (Ret.); Matthew Meselson, Harvard; James Patton, National Farmers Union; Gene Pokorny, Cambridge Reports; Charles Price, University of Pennsylvania; Edward Purcell, Harvard; George Rathjens, MIT; Eli Sagan, writer; Herbert Scoville, Jr., ACA; Jane Sharp, Cornell; William E. Tarlow, business executive; Stephen Thomas, management consultant; Kosta Tsipis, MIT; Paul C. Warnke, attorney; Jerome B. Wiesner, MIT; John Isaacs, legislative director; Catherine Clark, assistant executive director.

Council on Economic Priorities (CEP)-84 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10011 [212/691-8550] is a research group that investigates U.S. defense industries, national defense hardware and planning, and various defense advisory boards. A major 1981 CEP study by Gordon Adams, a member of the SANE Educational Fund board of directors, focused on the access of those groups to classified information related to research and development programs for new U.S. weapons. Leading figures from the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) play key roles in CEP funding and direction.

In addition to its in-depth investigations into U.S. defense and its tracking of Defense Department and defense industry personnel, CEP produces materials urging cuts in the defense budget and redirection of defense funds for social programs.

CEP's Military Research Staff is directed by David Gold, who is working on an anti-MX missile book. When that is concluded his next project will target "the whole nuclear weapons field."

Other 1982 projects include arms sales (Bill Hartung); waste in the defense budget and cost overruns (Gordon Adams); and a recently released study commissioned by the International Association of Machinists and CNFMP on the "economic implications of the Reagan build-up" (Robert DeGrasse). A longer book-length study of the FY 1983 defense budget and "Reagan build-up" is to be released in September 1982, which will attack defense spending as the cause of U.S. economic problems.

European Nuclear Disarmament (END)-with offices on Endsleigh Street in central London, was initiated in 1980 with strong input from the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), its international arm, the Transnational Institute (TNI), and the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, END serves as a primary link between the Western European peace movements including the British CND and Dutch lnterchurch Peace Council, the "independent" Yugoslav League for Peace, Independence and Equality of Peoples, and the Eastern European movements END leaders admit are "officially supported, state controlled" and "reflect Soviet foreign policy."

END has not formed a separate organization as such; but, according to one END leader, Peter D. Jones, a CND activist who started a four-month U.S. tour in January 1982, END "limits itself to individual and group contacts. Contacts with Eastern Europe vary, but East European signatories have urged Western Europeans to visit eastern countries and talk to people in a mutual exchange of views and ideas." [WIN, January 1, 1982].

END calls for a "nuclear-free Europe," and supports a "Nordic nuclear free zone" which are also goals of the WPC and USSR.

William Arkin, coordinator of the IPS Arms Race and Nuclear Weapons Project, served as coordinator for the END bi-annual "researchers" conference held in the Netherlands in March. END leaders who have visited the United States for speaking and organizing include Mary Kaldor, TNI fellow and former researcher at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), who is also on the British Labour Party's Defence Committee; and Dan Smith. EN D's intellectual guru is British Marxist historian E.P. Thompson.

Federation of American Scientists (FAS)-307 Massachusetts Avenue, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002 [202/ 546-3300], was founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. FAS calls itself "a conscience of the scientific community." FAS membership is overwhelmingly not composed of nuclear specialists, and admits its 5,000 members are "natural and social scientists and engineers concerned with problems of science and society."

Terming itself a "public interest lobby," FAS's long-time director is Jeremy J. Stone, son of I.F. Stone. FAS concern for the "public interest" includes opposing U.S. civil defense while asserting "nuclear war is national suicide." FAS defined its "primary goal" early in 1981 as "making sure that the body politic and the [Reagan] Administration in particular, are under no illusions on this score." FAS has a mailing list of 5,000 and publishes a monthly newsletter, In the Public Interest.
In October 1981 FAS began promoting a petition drive complimentary to the "nuclear freeze" campaign which within four months had obtained 10,000 signatures; now FAS is seeking donors to underwrite a campaign to obtain one million signatures.

FAS has a 24-member national council which selects nine candidates of which members elect six for annual council openings. Officers include Frank von Hippel, chairman;
John Holdren, vice chairman; George A. Silver, secretary; Robert M. Solow, treasurer; Jeremy J. Stone, director.

Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)-523 North Broadway, Nyack, N.Y. 10960 [914/358-4601] terms itself an association of individuals "who recognize the essential unity of all humanity and have joined together to explore the power of love and truth for resolving human conflict." Contrary to those utopian sentiments, in practice, FOR works in close collaboration with the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), War Resisters League (WRL) and other allegedly "pacifist" groups which collaborate with the Soviet-controlled WPC, support Soviet-backed Third World terrorist movements, and support unilateral disarmament by the United States and the Free World.

FOR's officers include William Walker, chairperson; Daniel Berrigan, Edwin T. Dahlberg, Thich Nhat Hanh, Kay Johnson, Charles L. Lawrence, Robert W. Moon, and Michael Robinson, vice chairpersons; Herman Will, treasurer.

FOR staff include Richard Baggett Deats, executive secretary; Dan B. Ebner [who wrote recently to WIN magazine, "As a Catholic, a pacifist, a feminist and a socialist, I am committed to working for the 'anti-imperialist, antiracist, antisexist, and anti-interventionist movement."] area development/special projects; Sue Hadley, youth action; and Mike Jendrzejcyzk, disarmament.

FOR is affiliated with the International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR), based in the Netherlands. Coordinator of the IFOR secretariat is James H. Forest. FOR is taking a leading role in planning demonstrations and support activities targeted on the U.N. SSD-II, and will sponsor a coffee house at 777 U.N. Plaza throughout the SSD-II to serve as a meeting place and literature distribution center.

Ground Zero (GZ)-806 15th Street, N.W., Suite 421, Washington, D.C. 20005 [202/638-7402], was organized early in 1981 by "a of individuals concerned with the lack of a national consensus and direction on nuclear war" in order to conduct a program of public education...was a matter of the utmost priority," GZ's endorsers include Physicians for Social Responsibility (PRS), Business Executives Move for New National Priorities (BEM), National Council of Churches (NCC), Arms Control Association (ACA), and Council for a Live-able World (CLW). GZ lists among its individual endorsers former CIA Director William Colby.

With a staff of 13 including 5 regional coordinators, GZ's director is Roger Molander, a 7-year member of the National Security Council under the Nixon, Ford and Carter Administrations; deputy director is his brother, Earl Molander. GZ is receiving national media publicity for its April 18-25 "Ground Zero Week" publicizing the damage at "ground zero" of a nuclear explosion as an incentive for U.S. disarmament. GZ indicates it feels the question is that Soviet arms are essentially irrelevant and says "the question is how do we get ourselves out?"

GZ spokesmen say they stick to "educational" work [featuring dramatic red and black graphics of mushroom clouds and "run for your life" displays in cooperation with Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR)] in order to protect their tax-exemption, but admit that "If you understand what nuclear war is about, you're peace oriented."

Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies (IDDS)-251 Harvard Street, Brookline, MA. 02146 [617/ 734-4216] was formed in January 1980 by Randall Forsberg, 38, a former Harvard Ph.D. candidate and SIPRI peace researcher. IDDS recently received tax-exempt status, and has a staff of eight full-time and three part-time employees. Mrs. Forsberg, IDDS executive director, in 1980 circulated a draft call for a "nuclear freeze." It received minimal support from the major disarmament groups until March 1981, following the Brezhnev speech to the CPSU 26th Congress.

In cooperation with CDI leaders Gene LaRocque and John Kenneth Galbraith, Forsberg was actively lobbying among delegates to the 1980 Democratic National Convention for disarmament, and took the position that "for the U.S. to regain nuclear superiority, rather than stopping the arms race, will produce unprecedented danger of first strike by both sides in time of crisis; and is the single greatest danger currently facing the world."

IDDS officers include Patrick Hughes, secretary, and George Sommaripa, treasurer. The IDDS Board of Directors reflects a spectrum from the academic and activist branches of the anti-defense lobby including several individuals and organizations active with the World Peace Council (WPC). Members of the board include Betty Lall, chairperson, U.N. Committee on Disarmament.

Institute for Policy Studies (IPS)- 1901 Que Street, NW., Washington, D.C. 20009 [202/234-9382] is a revolutionary think-tank that has consistently supported policies that facilitate the foreign policy goals of the Soviet Union and weaken the position of the United States.
This has been true whether the issue is disarmament (for the West), abolition of nuclear power (for the West), opposition to the activities of foreign and domestic intelligence agencies (for the West) or support for Soviet-backed revolutionary terrorist groups in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Western Europe and the Middle East.

To put its policy recommendations into action, IPS has built networks of contacts among Congressional legislators and their staffs, academics, government officials, and the national media.

In 1978, in an article in National Review, Brian Crozier, director of the London-based Institute for the Study of Conflict, described IPS as the "perfect intellectual front for Soviet activities which would be resisted if they were to originate openly from the KGB."

IPS has been particularly concerned with researching U.S. defense industries and arms sales policies to Free World countries under pressure from Soviet-supported terrorist movements. The director of IPS arms sales research, Michael Klare, is a veteran of the North American Congress on Latin America, a Castroite research group that has aided CIA defector Philip Agee, and who worked with the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS), an IPS off-shoot affiliated with the Fund for Peace. Klare has made frequent trips to Havana to "lecture" on U.S. arms policies to "graduate students" at the University of Havana, and has participated in disarmament conferences sponsored by WPC groups.
IPS's Arms Race and Nuclear Weapons Project is directed by William "Bill" Arkin, who is compiling a book of [United States] nuclear weapons data with "everything from where the bombs are stored to where weapons delivery systems are cooked up." This is to be kept up-to-date with revisions bi-annually.

Arkin, who formerly worked for the Center for Defense Information, is coordinating an attack on the defense budget by a group including Bertram Gross and long-time IPS activist Richard Kaufman, assistant director and general counsel of the Joint Economic Committee of Congress.

According to the Zill report, Arkin was coordinator of the March 1982 END researchers conference in Holland; briefed END leaders on U.S. weapons developments "which affect Europe...[and] works closely with Stan Norris of CDI and with press people from The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post and CBS where, at the end of February, 60 Minutes will feature a story of his on Nuclear Weapons in Europe."

In addition to taking a leadership role in the National Nuclear Weapons Freeze Conference, February 19-20, in Denver, and conducting a workshop attacking the impact of military spending on local areas, and writing a pamphlet on nuclear weapons to be distributed by the time of SSD-II, Zill reported that Arkin "is also teaching a course at the Defense Intelligence School called 'Research and Methodology: Effects of Limited Nuclear War in Europe'."

IPS played a seminal role in the formation and development of the Nuclear Research and Information Service (N IRS), the World Information Service on Energy (WISE), and European Nuclear Disarmament (END).

On April 10, 1982, an IPS-sponsored group visiting Moscow for a week of meetings with high-level Soviet officials responsible for disseminating disinformation and propaganda for U.S. consumption, met with U.S. reporters to serve as the unofficial means for floating the possibility that Brezhnev might agree to a New York summit meeting in New York at SSD-II.

The IPS group, led by its principal spokesman, Marcus Raskin, IPS cofounder and senior fellow, included Robert Borosage, IPS director, National Lawyers Guild (NLG) activist and former director of the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS); Minneapolis Mayor Donald M. Fraser; Rt. Rev. Paul Moore, Jr., Episcopal Bishop of New York; New York lawyer Robert S. Potter; and Roger Wilkins, journalist and senior fellow of the Joint Center for Political Studies (JCPS) which specializes in "black issues."

The IPS group identified only two of the CPSU Central Committee officials they met-Georgi A. Arbatov, head of the Institute of the U.S.A. and Canada, a "think-tank" that provides research and analysis and also cultivates and develops contacts with Americans at the direction of the KGB and the International Department of the CPSU Central Committee; and Vadim V. Zagladin, first deputy chief of the International Department.
In various U.S. interviews, Borosage has floated such standard Soviet themes as the USSR is satisfied by "rough parity" with the United States; that the United States is restarting the arms race; that the Soviets want to go back to SALT II and get U.S. ratification; that if the United States starts another round in the arms race, it will seriously hurt the Soviet economy and ordinary Soviet citizens-but they'll still go ahead, so competition is futile; and the threat that the modern U.S. weapons proposed for deployment are "very dangerous...and would lead to much more dangerous stages that would make both sides insecure, not more secure."
Borosage took pains to say that the Soviets are "skeptical" of the disarmament movement and "they hadn't expected it. It was much more powerful and widespread than they'd ever imagined."
Institute for World Order/ World Disarmament Campaign (IWO/WDC)-777 U.N. Plaza, Fifth Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017 [212/490-0010] is playing a key role in training disarmament campaign organizers. Eighteen disarmament briefings to which the United Nations correspondents and another 275 New York-based reporters are invited have been scheduled prior to SSD-II. On the average, 25 reporters attend. Speakers to date have included Herbert "Pete" Scoville, Robert Lifton and Dr. Jack Geiger of PSR. On February 25, 1982, the IWOIWDC initiated a two-session "problem-solving theater" in cooperation with all the other leftist and disarmament groups at 777 U.N. Plaza.

IWO/WDC coordinator Carolyn Krebs has an information packet distributed free to editors, writers, and media people of 35 items which have been carefully selected "to avoid a diatribe tone."

IWO plays a role in a number of ways parallel to IPS, but without IPS's emphasis on cultivating activists and supervising the formation of new organizations to serve shifting left campaigns.

The IWO subsidizes a network of 28 scholars both in the United States and Europe and has "a network of over 75 to research ways to transform the system of international relations." Many IWO scholars and officers have been closely associated with IPS. 

Among these are Richard Barnet and Richard Falk, also active with the International Association of Democratic Lawyers (IADL). IWO's 30,000-name mailing list includes 10,000 teachers. It has a staff of 18.

International Association of Democratic Lawyers (IADL)-was described in a CIA Report on Soviet Propaganda Operations prepared at the request of the House Intelligence Committee and published by the committee in 1978, as "one of the most useful Communist front organizations at the service of the Soviet Communist Party."

The report noted that at its 1975 conference in Algiers, "the real and ideological interests of the IADL were covered by the agenda...which considered law to be a function in the struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism and apartheid. Under the banner of anti-imperialism the IADL's thrust... was to do battle with the large international companies as a way to gain adherents and backing in the developing world."

The IADL has a Western Hemisphere regional subsidiary, the Association of American Jurists (AAJ), headquartered in Havana. The IADL's major U.S. section is the National Lawyers Guild (NLG), organized in 1936 with the assistance of the Comintern as a Communist Party, U.S.A. (CPUSA) front. The NLG is still controlled by an alliance of "Old Left" CPUSA members and supporters and other revolutionaries aligned with Cuba and Vietnam. The NLG and the closely related National Conference of Black Lawyers (NCBL) are affiliated with both the IADL and AAJ.

IADL activities parallel the other international Soviet fronts. During the anti-Vietnam period, lawyers active in the IADL's U.S. section, the NLG, and in another CPUSA front, the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee (NECLC) organized a secondary front, the Lawyers Committee on U.S. Policy toward Vietnam, in which Richard FaIk, Richard Barnet and others were active. A parallel can be drawn with the recent formation of the Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (LCNP).

International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW)-635 Huntington Avenue, Second Floor, Boston, MA. 02115, was formed in 1980 and held its first congress near Washington, D.C., in March 1981. Soviet government involvement with IPPNW is overt: large high-level Soviet delegations attend conferences and IPPNW's three co-chairmen are Yevgeny Chazov, Soviet Deputy Minister of Health; Sir Douglas Black, president, Royal College of Physicians; and Bernard Lown, a Harvard cardiologist. 

IPPNW membership overlaps Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR).

IPPNW's role was described by Ann Zill of the Stewart Mott Foundation as "to coordinate all the [anti-nuclear] Physicians groups that have sprung up in countries such as Canada, Sweden, Finland, Germany, England, Switzerland, Norway and Australia."

International Union of Students (IUS)-based in Prague, Czechoslovakia, works closely with the Budapest-based World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY) as fronts for Soviet covert action targeted against student and youth groups. Dissident radicals supporting "Euro-Communism" and Maoism have been expelled from the IUS, and its publications, statements and resolutions consistently follow Soviet policy and are invariably directed against the United States and Western European countries.

June 12 Disarmament Coalition (J-12 DC)-853 Broadway, Room 2109, New York, N.Y. 10003, the group first appeared in October 1981 as the Campaign for the Special Session on Disarmament (CSSD) and operated from the New York offices of the Mobilization for Survival (MFS).

The purpose of the group is to organize a mass disarmament rally in New York to apply pressure on the U.S. government, particularly with President Reagan slated to personally attend the meeting, for disarmament concessions. Leading groups and individuals in the coalition include Cora Weiss, Riverside Church Disarmament Program; Communist Party, U.S.A. (CPUSA); U.S. Peace Council (USPC); Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF); Women Strike for Peace (WSP); American Friends Service Committee (AFSC); Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR); and the War Resisters League (WRL).

Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (LCNP)-777 U.N. Plaza, Fifth Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017 [212/ 887-8962], appeared late in 1981 circulating a "Statement on the Illegality of Nuclear Weapons" which has no condemnation or even mention of Soviet nuclear weapons and targeting policy, but which is aimed specifically at the United States.

LCNP's positions closely parallel those of the Soviet "peace" fronts. LCNP's officers and initial members of its consultative council include a number of activists from the National Lawyers Guild (NLG), the U.S. section of the Soviet-controlled International Association of Democratic Lawyers (IADL). LCNP's co-chairpersons are Martin Popper, an identified CPUSA member who was the NLG's executive secretary during the 1940s and remains active in the New York City NLG chapter and in IADL activities; and Peter Weiss, NLG member, vice president of the Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR) and president of the board of the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS).

Secretary and executive director is Elliott L. Meyrolwitz and LCNP's treasurer is Robert L. Boehm, CCR's chairperson. The consultative council is listed as including Richard Barnet, IPS and formerly active with the Lawyers Committee on U.S. Policy toward Vietnam (LCUSPV) which was founded by activists with the IADL, NLG, and National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee (NECLC), a CPUSA legal action and propaganda front; Ian Brownlie, Oxford University; Francis A. Boyle, University of Illinois; Anthony A. D'Amato, Northwestern University; Robert F. Drinan, Georgetown University and 1968 NLG national vice president; IADL and LCUSPV activist Richard A. Falk, Princeton University and Institute for World Order (IWO); C. Clyde Ferguson, Jr., Harvard University; Roger Fisher, Harvard University; Ellen FreyWouters, City University of New York (CUNY); John H.E. Fried, CUNY emeritus; Ann Fagan Ginger, University of Puget Sound, a veteran NLG "Old Leftist" and president of the IADL's Havana-based Western Hemisphere affiliate, the Association of American Jurists (AAJ); Bert B. Lockwood, Jr., University of Cincinnati; Sean MacBride, International Peace Bureau, Lenin Peace Prize winner, vice president of the Moscow-based Continuing Liaison Committee of the World Congress of Peace Forces; Saul H. Mendlovitz, Rutgers University (Newark), IWO; Arthur S. Miller, George Washington University (emeritus); Lord Philip Noel-Baker; Bert V. A. Roling, Groningen University (Netherlands); John Quigley, Ohio State University, former NLG vice president; Yoshikazu Sakamoto, University of Tokyo; Sherle R. Schwenninger, lOW; and Burns H. Weston, University of Iowa.

The organization's rhetoric is shrill and very similar to the cant found routinely in proclamations of the WPC and related Soviet-controlled front organizations. For examp1e:

"Humanity has entered a critical period in its history as a species. Today's nuclear arsenals have the potential for annihilating a large segment of the world's populations, for devastating and contaminating vast areas of the earth's surface ... In short, nuclear weapons threaten human survival itself."

LCNP violently attacks U.S. policy-makers as "increasingly contemplating" the use of nuclear weapons and asserts its role is to combat "the Reagan administration's position that the United States must be prepared to intervene, using nuclear capabilities if necessary, to protect U.S. interests wherever threatened [and in] U.S. official policy a dangerous acceptance of the legitimacy and efficacy of using nuclear weapons to reverse international situations considered adverse to U.S. national interests."

Members of Congress for Peace Through Law Education Fund (MCPLEF)-201 Massachusetts Avenue, N.E., Room 318, Washington, D.C. 20002 [202/544-4250], described its general goals as strengthening the power of the U.N., disarmament and "developing a global economy in which every person enjoys the material necessities of life." MCPL commenced informally in 1959 as the brainchild of Marcus Raskin, then on the staff of Rep. Robert Kastenmeier, as a mini-caucus of 12 liberal-left Congressmen to promote some radically utopian changes in U.S. policies, starting with abolition of NATO and disarmament, and including vastly increased social welfare programs.

MCPL has been formally staffed since 1966, with Congressmen contributing staff positions and funds. Staff and consultants include Edith B. Wilkie, executive director; June Campagna, executive assistant; and consultants Murray Woldman, Frank Record and Richard Creecy.

In the last Congress, MCPL had 74 members. For 1982, MCPL is concentrating on developing campaigns and strategies to make cuts in specific weapons systems, particularly the MX missile and B-1 bomber; and on stopping U.S. aid to the government of El Salvador. MCPL was highly active in drafting one of the two nuclear freeze resolutions offered in Congress early this year.

The MCPL-EF was established in 1975 in order to receive outside contributions. Officers include Rep. John Seiberling, president; and C. Maxwell Stanley, vice president, whose foundation provides major financing for the U.N. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) apparatus in which the WPC holds the vice presidency.

Mobilization for Survival (MFS)- with national offices until the close of the U.N. SSD-II in the Church of All Nations, 48 St. Marks Place, New York, N.Y. 10003 [212/460-8545], was organized in the fall of 1976 by a handful of U.S. and European WPC activists. MFS made its first formal appearance on April 23, 1977, at a conference in Philadelphia led by individuals active within the WPC, Chicago Peace Council, WILPF, WSP, AFSC, CALC and related groups. These included British disarmament activist Peggy Duff of the International Confederation for Disarmament and Peace (ICDP); Sid Peck; Sid Lens; Ron Young, AFSC; Michael Klare; Terry Provance; David McReynolds and Norma Becker.

Sid Peck, a former CPUSA functionary, explained MFS's origins by noting that the WPC, in cooperation with the ICDP and Japan Council Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs [the Japanese Communist Party-control led Gensuikyo], were "working closely with nongovernmental organizations the world over to create the maximum impact on the United Nations Special Session on Disarmament in late May 1978."

MFS has been to a considerable extent superseded by the June 12 Disarmament Coalition partly to protect MFS's tax-exempt status and for legal considerations since the J 12 DC is involved in civil disobedience planning. MFS's "educational" role allows it to serve as a communications network for local environmental and anti-nuclear power groups promoting their participation in disarmament activities; and to prepare disarmament information packets for outreach to churches, hospitals and trade unions.

National Lawyers Guild (NLG)-853 Broadway, 17th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10003 [212/260-1360], is the largest U.S. affiliate of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers (IADL), the Soviet-controlled front for lawyers. The NLG was organized with the assistance of the Comintern in 1936 as a legal action front operated by the CPUSA. The NLG remains the principal legal bulwark of the CPUSA, its fronts and controlled unions.

While there are small numbers of Maoists, Trotskyites and independent Marxist "New Leftists" in the organization, the NLG's international positions and real domestic control lies with the supporters of the Soviet and Cuban Communist regimes. During the 1970s, the NLG's cooperation with the Cuban government has escalated markedly.

Major NLG activities include defense of revolutionaries and militant extremists charged with violent crimes, litigation against law enforcement intelligence units, and providing legal advice in advance of demonstrations with civil disobedience-in effect acting as co-conspirators in violating the law.

The NLG has produced a handbook for NLG lawyers involved in mass defense of anti-nuclear demonstrators; and NLG chapters nationwide have been active in providing aid to antinuclear power and disarmament demonstrators. The NLG is a member of the J-12 DC.

National Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign Clearinghouse (NNWFCC)-4144 Lindell Street, Room 201, St. Louis, MO. 63108 [314/533-1169], was set up late in 1981 as the National Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign moved into high gear. Pending its own tax exemption, NNWFCC is being funded via the Council for a Liveable World Education Fund.

Coordinator of the Clearinghouse is Randy Kehler, a veteran activist and organizer who conducted the successful "nuclear freeze" campaign in western Massachusetts prior to his selection to head the coordination center.

The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (NWFC) was launched at a Washington, D.C., meeting of the major U.S. disarmament organizations in March 1981, following a call for a nuclear weapons "moratorium" issued by Soviet president Brezhnev at the February 1981 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. AFSC, CALC, WRL and WILPF are providing major organizational support for "nuclear freeze" initiatives at the local and national level.

NWFC national executive committee member Currie Burns, national coordinator of the Clergy and Laity Concerned (CALC) "Human Security: Peace and Jobs" program who last year participated in a tour of Europe by leaders of U.S. disarmament groups, is urging the NFC "to develop enough clout to stop the deployment of the Pershing and cruise missiles in Europe. They're scheduled to go on line in 1983 and this would be disastrous for the Freeze Campaign." Burris also has recommended that U.S. activists take lessons from the Dutch "Stop the Neutron Bomb" organization, which is led by Dutch Communist Party functionary Nico Schouten and is a spin-off from the World Peace Council (WPC).

A more obvious radicalization in orientation of the "nuclear freeze" campaign was in evidence at its February 19-20, 1982, national conference where influential WRL activist David McReynolds, urged opposition to U.S. aid to El Salvador be included in "freeze" campaigning and criticized the NWFC for not challenging "the whole structure of anti-Soviet prejudices. This is something the left should do."

NNWFCC is coordinating many activities in connection with Ground Zero Week, including coordinated press conferences on April 26 calling for a "nuclear freeze."
The NWFC national executive committee projects a 3-to-S-year campaign will be needed to obtain U.S. government agreement to a "freeze," and members have expressed their ~ belief that a change in the White ~ House in 1984 would be necessary for victory.

Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS)-1536 16th Street, NW., Washington, D.C. 20036 [202/~ 483-0045), was established by individuals closely associated with the Institute for Policy Studies in the summer of 1978 to serve as an information and communications center for environmentalist and antinuclear power activists. In 1980, NIRS described its main project as "building detailed, up-to-date files on skilled people helpful to the antinuclear and safe energy movement." NIRS has played a central role in generating support for "nuclear free Pacific" groups, and is the U.S. distribution center for WISE.

NIRS activities have included cosponsoring a public speech by IPS "senior fellow" Richard Barnet in March 1980, in which he denounced U.S. reaction to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as an effort to start a "new Cold War," attacked the United States for developing "destabilizing weapons systems...not only the Trident, but the MX" and Pershing II and cruise missiles for Europe.

With funding from sources including the Youth Project and Cora and Peter Weiss, NIRS budget is some $200,000.

Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR)-P.O. Box 144, Watertown, MA. 02172 [617/924-3468], states that in 1961, PSR "acted as a united medical voice in warning of the hazards of atmospheric nuclear testing, significantly contributing to the momentum that led to the Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963." The present PSR, Inc., organized in 1978 by 10 Boston-area anti-nuclear health activists, is a "non-profit organization committed to public and professional education on the medical hazards of nuclear weaponry."

PSR works with a variety of groups backing U.S. and Western unilateral disarmament including IPPNW, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), FAS, CDI and IPS in promulgating the most extreme "end of the world" propaganda as the inevitable result unless the United States heeds its appeal to reduce tensions with the USSR and ban "all use of nuclear weapons."

Claiming a membership of 10,000 and 101 chapters, PSR president is Helen Caldicott, 43, an Australian pediatrician and disarmament zealot whose shrill hysterical voice has frequently been heard at MFS antinuclear rallies. She claims to have been instrumental in persuading Australian trade unions to oppose mining of uranium ore, and reportedly has attempted to persuade top AFL-ClO officials to adopt anti-nuclear policies. In 1981 Caldicott and other "peace activists" visited the USSR. She has given up her position at Harvard Medical School to devote full time to disarmament organizing.

PSR's presentations on the horrors of nuclear war are heavily salted with radical supporters of Soviet-backed Third World terrorist groups, veteran unilateral disarmament proponents and health care professionals associated in the past with such groups as the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR), Medical Aid to Indochina (MAIC), and the U.S.-Cuba Health Exchange (US-CHE).

A presentation on February 13, 1982, by the New York City PSR, P.O. Box 411, Planetarium Station, New York, N.Y. 10024 [212/477-34161 (salaried staff coordinator is Joanne Pomerantz), featured Richard J. Barnet, IPS; Jerome Frank, board member of SANE and CLW and a past president of FAS; Robert J. Litton, IPPNW activist and US-CHE sponsor; Studs Terkel and Victor W. Sidel, M.D., Professor and Chairman of the
Department of Social Medicine, Montefiore Hospital and Medical Center of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and US-CHE sponsor.

Speakers at other New York City PSR meetings from August 1981 to January 1982 include Michio Kaku, physics department, City College of New York (CCNY), a frequent MFS rally speaker who links his antinuclear sentiments to the Hiroshima atomic bombing in which members of his family died; H. Jack Geiger, M.D., a founding PSR member and president of IPPNW; Barry Commoner, Citizens Party; and Joe Fahey of Pax Christi and the Manhattan College Peace Studies section on the European Nuclear Disarmament movement.

Among the featured speakers in national PSR presentations have been
Kosta Tsipis, MIT; Gene LaRocque, CDI; John Constable, M.D., Harvard; H. Jack Geiger, M.D.; Howard H. Hiatt, Dean, Harvard School of Public Health.

According to the Zill report, PSR has raised nearly $1 million. On Veterans Day (November 11, 1982), PSR and the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) will attempt to duplicate their 1981 campus seminar successes. PSR has targeted some 15 cities for its grisly presentations.

Riverside Church Disarmament Program (RCDP)-490 Riverside Drive, New York, N.Y. 10027 [212/ 222-5900] and its director, Cora Weiss, are playing leading roles in the June 12 Disarmament Coalition organizing of a mass demonstration during SSD-II. The Zill report cited Weiss as saying $250,000 will be needed to organize a large, effective protest.

Cora Weiss, formerly active with the Emma Lazarus Clubs and Women Strike for Peace (WSP), played a leadership role in the CPUSA-controlled anti-Vietnam coalitions [New Mobilization Committee, People's Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ)] which collaborated closely with the WPC. She received considerable media attention for her numerous meetings with Vietnamese Communist officials in Paris and Hanoi and for her controversial role in the Committee of Liaison and in a project to provide material aid to Hanoi, the Friendshipment/Bach Mai Hospital Fund.

She and her husband, Peter Weiss, president of the IPS board, are officers of the Samuel Rubin Foundation, which provides the major financial support to IPSITNI, and of the Fund for Tomorrow, a smaller foundation which is apparently wholly funded by the Rubin foundation, which supports many activist groups spun-off by IPS including WISE.

The RCDP was formed in 1978; its current budget is $137,000. The project sponsors a major disarmament conference each November. Among the most noted Soviet participants has been Yuri Kapralov, nominally a counsellor at the Soviet Embassy and expert on military and disarmament affairs, who has been serving as Moscow's unofficial "ambassador" to the U.S. disarmament movement. It is noted that the Attorney General's guidelines on FBI security investigations prohibits monitoring of "religious" activities.

During Lent, RCDP sponsored weekly Wednesday night gatherings of disarmament activists who were taught "resistance, dangers of radiation, [and] the European Nuclear Disarmament movement." In cooperation with the MFS Religious Task-force led by Paul Mayer, RCDP is cosponsoring "Peace Sabbath" events [May 28-31] with CALC, FOR, Pax Christi and Sojourners.

SANE-A Citizens Committee for a Sane World-514 C Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002 [202/546-7100], cooperates directly with the WPC, co-sponsoring two Capitol Hill appearances by WPC activists in 1981. SANE and the CNFMP are cooperating in compiling a joint computerized mailing list by Congressional districts, and in a media task force against the Reagan defense budget.

SANE's major 1982 project, co-sponsored with Congress Watch and FRAC, is the Fair Budget Action program, which will apply pressure in congressional districts for diverting the defense budget to social programs. The Zill report noted that SANE's 30,000-name mailing list, FRAC's big budget and Congress Watch's 100,000 members should ensure major attention.

SANE played a leading role in a 1975 Chicago National Conference to Slash Military Spending organized by the CPUSA's then head of WPC U.S. activities, Pauline Royce Rosen. The organization formed from that conference, the National Center to Slash Military Spending, joined CNFMP; but dissolved in 1980 and was superseded by the U.S. Peace Council (USPC)].

SANE executive director is David Cortright, a founder of the U.S. Peace Council, former GI organizer at Fort Bliss, IPS protégé of Marcus Raskin, and staffer of the Center for National Security Studies. Cortright has hired Chad Dobson of the Campaign to Stop the MX and moved him from Salt Lake City to the East Coast to help organize the June 12 demonstration.

SANE's board of directors is headed by co-chairmen Seymour Melman and William Winpisinger, president of the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM). Board members include Ramsey Clark, William Davidon, Jerome Frank, Rep. Tom Harkin [DIA.), Homer Jack, David Livingston, Robert Maslow, Joseph Miller, Michael Moffitt (IPS), Robert Musil, Leon Quat, Marcus Raskin, Rep. Fred Richmond (D-N.Y.), Alex Rosenberg, Morton Stavis, Edith Tiger, Sr. Mary Luke Tobin, Kosta Tsipis, and Rep. Ted Weiss (D-N.Y.).

SANE is raising money for a TV spot in favor of the "nuclear freeze" and is in the midst of a one million-piece direct mail campaign.

Stanley Foundation-420 E. Third Street, Muscatine, IA. 52761 [319/ 264-1500], since 1969 has been financing "educational meetings" among U.N. NGO groups and foreign policy conferences in support of détente with Soviet participation. Its meetings, once or twice yearly, have been held generally in the Church Center for the U.N., 777 U.N. Plaza, or in the offices of the Arms Control Association (ACA) in Washington, D.C. This NGO Consultation Group established a Steering Committee of 12 to 15 people for which the Zill report was compiled.

Stanley Foundation media programs include a radio program, "Common Ground," 39 programs of 30-minutes broadcast over 50 National Public Radio stations. The foundation also sponsors regional news media conferences for 50 to 60 reporters in the print and electronic media based in cities with a population of 500,000 to one million.

The Zill report noted the Stanley Foundation was planning some 10 conferences this year for up to 50 people-U.N. diplomats, businessmen, labor leaders, U.S. government officials and academics-to work on recommendations for changes in U.S. foreign policy. One of these, scheduled for March 26-27, in New York, was to bring 50 "Congress people and staffs to learn about the role of the U.N. in arms control."

Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS)-1384 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA. 02238 [617(547-5552], was established at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1969 in support of the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT). The group claims more than 100,000 sponsors nationwide.

The UCS board of directors is chaired by Henry M. Kendall of MIT. Among the board members are Dr. James A. Fay; Dr. Kurt Gottfried; Leonard Meeher; Herbert "Pete" Scoville, former CIA deputy director; and Richard Wright. UCS executive director is Eric E. Van Loon.

In cooperation with PSR and related groups, UCS sponsored 150 campus teach-ins on November 11, 1981. UCS programs were weighted with speakers against U.S. defense and foreign policies and favoring unilateral disarmament, with a token opponent invited to lend credibility to the event. USC organizer Peter Stein has built a campus network with an "arms project steering committee" that will attempt to expand campus outreach in November.

The Zill report noted UCS intends to become more involved "outside the U.S. with teach-ins in European centers too."

UCS is planning an international meeting of 40 disarmament scientists to be held in New York at Roosevelt University during the second week of SSD-II, and is raising money to fully pay expenses for 15, plus a portion of the expenses for others.

U.S. Peace Council (USPC)-7 E. 15th Street, Room 408, New York, N.Y. 10003 [212/989-1194], was launched as the official U.S. national section of the WPC at a November 1979 conference in Philadelphia.

The CPUSA newspaper Daily World [November 1, 1979] credited three veteran CPUSA organizers for laying the organizational basis for the USPC by "working for years to establish local committees, organize delegations from the U.S. to international meetings of the WPC, and distribute information about the Peace Council to activists in the United States." Those named included Pauline Royce Rosen, "who coordinated all WPC activities in the U.S. for many years" and led what in effect was a CPUSA front serving as a cover for the WPC, the National Center to Slash Military Spending (NCSMS), which dissolved in 1980 and recommended to its supporters they join the USPC and CNFMP; Sylvia Kushner of the Chicago Peace Council (CPC); and Elsie Monjar of the Los Angeles Peace Council (LAPC).

Among those taking active roles in the USPC founding, speaking or listed as workshop leaders, were Mark Shanahand, CNFMP; Sarah Staggs, CPC; Connecticut Rep. Irving Stolberg; David Cortright, SANE; Rev. William Hogan, CALC; Terry Provance, AFSC; Erica Foldy, CNFMP; Frank Chapman, AFSC; Archie Sing-ham, Nation editorial board; Betsy Sweet, WILPF; Massachusetts Rep. Saundra Graham; New York City Council members Miriam Friedlander and Gilberto Gerena-Valentin; and Ed Vargas, vice president, Connecticut Federation of Teachers, Hartford, CT. The published list of USPC sponsors included Canon Frederick B. Williams, president, Council of Churches of Manhattan; Alden Whitman; Edith Villastrigo, director, Washington Office, WSP; Michigan State Senator Jackie Vaughn, Ill; Fred Stover, U.S. Farmers Association; Rev. Anthony M. Stevens Arroyo, director, CEMI, Pax Christi; Dr. Robert J. Schwartz, chairman, New York SANE; Jack Sangster, Fund for New Priorities in America (FNPA); Ruth Messinger, New York City Council; Maryann Mahaffey, Erma Henderson and Clyde Cleveland, Detroit City Council members; Dr. L. Charles Gray, vice president, Christian Peace Conference; Donna Cooper, Washington D.C. Peace Center; Illinois Representative Carol Mosely Braun; and Marjorie Boehm, president, U.S. section, WILPF.

In a brochure distributed at its second convention in November 1981, the USPC explained its support for disarmament and Third World revolutionary organizations:

"The campaign to stop weapons of mass destruction cannot be separated from support for the peoples of Southern Africa, Asia and the Middle East ....The movement to defend and consolidate détente is at the same time a movement to halt the forces that seek to crush struggles for liberation. The demand for jobs and rebuilding the cities of our country is simultaneously a demand to reduce the military budget, from which we must get the billions of dollars needed for that task."

USPC executive director is Michael Myerson, a long-time functionary of the New York State Communist Party.

War Resisters League (WRL)-339 Lafayette Street, New York, N.Y. 10012 [212/228-0450], was founded in 1923 "to support conscientious objectors whose pacifism was secular or political in nature," which primarily meant supporting anarchists, Marxists and Communists who object to participating in "imperialist" war, but who did not object to class war and thus were not pacifists. WRL defines itself as supporting "radical effort to create a just and peaceful society through nonviolent and life supporting methods."

WRL's dual revolutionary slant is indicated in its selection of articles supporting Marxism and "social anarchism...socialism without centralism, without a party, and without a government," as its primer on alternative political structures.

A major WRL project since 1967 is WIN magazine, whose synthesis of radical culture and new life styles has included support for revolutionary terrorist groups including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Irish Republican Army (IRA), Weather Underground, West German Baader-Meinhof gang, etc.

Although WRL claims its relations with the WPC have been strained, David McReynolds and other WRL activists continue to collaborate with the Moscow-line Communists in coalitions, including the June 12 Disarmament Coalition.

It is noted that West German news reports, citing annual government internal security surveys of totalitarian organizations, term the German Peace Society/United Military Service Resisters [Deutsche Friedens Gesellschaft/Vereinigte Kriegsdiens tgegner] (DGFNK) (an affiliate of the War Resisters League International, WRLI) a front of the German Communist Party (DKP). The 14-member DFG/VK board, co-chaired by Gerd Greune and Klaus Mannhardt, a member of the WPC, also has four DKP members.

Women for Racial and Economic Equality (WREE)-130 E. 16th Street, New York, N.Y. 10003 [212/473-6111], is a CPUSA front which is the U.S, affiliate of the Soviet-controlled Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF).
Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF)-based in East Berlin, is so heavily Communist in its character that it has nearly lost its former character as a front involving non-Communists. That role, more and more, is being taken by the WILPF which has been so heavily penetrated by Communists that last year it was made an affiliate of the World Peace Council, as is the WIDF. During the 1960s, the U.S. WIDF affiliate was Women Strike for Peace (WSP); however, in the mid-1970s, the CPUSA established a new women's front, Women for Racial and Economic Equality (WREE), now the official WIDF section.

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)-headquartered at 1213 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA. 19107 [215/563-7110], and a Washington legislative office formerly shared with WSP, has been cooperating in WPC and WIDF projects to such an extent that WILPF last year was made a WPC affiliate. WILPF has a tax-exempt "educational" arm, the Jane Adams Peace Association (JAPA). WILPF leaders include Yvonne Logan, president; Liggy Frank, executive director; Betsy Sweet, program director.

The heavy-handed pro-Soviet stance of many WILPF activists includes participation in the WPC and USPC by Disarmament Coordinator Katherine "Kay" Camp; frequent sponsorship of exchange visits with the Soviet Women's Committee; and a call for a campaign against "anti-Sovietism" in the media-defined as any suggestion that the USSR may be responsible for the arms race or pose a threat to the United States. WILPF's "star" petition campaign utilizes an old WPC slogan, "Stop the Arms Race."

Women Strike for Peace (WSP)- 145 S. 13th Street, Philadelphia, PA. 19107 [215/923-0861), was founded in 1961 as a "national movement of women against the arms race and for the fulfillment of human needs." Virtually its first act was to assign CPUSA member Selma Rein to arrange WSP's affiliation with the WIDF.

WSP's national coordinator is Ethel Taylor, and its national legislative coordinator is Edith Villastrigo. WSP members have comprised a substantial proportion of U.S. delegations to World Peace Congresses. WSP has been working in support of the local "nuclear freeze" initiatives, aiding in Ground Zero and PSR events, and carrying out effective "lobbies by proxy."

The Zill report notes that WSP went to Rep. Millicent Fenwick with 85 proxy cards and asked her to use her influence to hold hearings on Euro-missiles and the Middle East as well as arms control efforts. The three-day hearings by the House Foreign Affairs Committee commenced on February 27, 1982.

World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY)-based in Budapest, is a Soviet-controlled front that works closely with the IUS and other fronts in promoting Soviet foreign policy goals-whether détente and arms control or support for Third World terrorist movements. The WFDY's World Youth Congresses have served as occasions for introducing young radicals and Communists to terrorist leaders. The U.S. WFDY section is the Young Workers Liberation League (YWLL), the youth arm of the Communist Party, U.S.A. (CPUSA).

World Information Service on Energy (WISE)-based in Amsterdam, and with a U.S. address at 1536 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 [202/387-0818], was formed by antinuclear activists and researchers in 1978 "to function as an international switchboard for local and national groups around the world who want to exchange information and support one another." In the United States, WISE has received distribution and other support from Terry Provance, active with the AFSC, USPC and coconvenor of the Mobilization for Survival (MFS) International Task Force.

In June 1981, the WISE council decided to reduce its coverage of disarmament demonstrations and dates except when the links between nuclear power and nuclear arms "are clear." Another group with ties to IPSITNI-European Nuclear Disarmament (END)-has taken over that function.

World Peace Council (WPC)- based in Helsinki, is the major Soviet-controlled international Communist front organization. Operating under the joint control of the International Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the KGB, the WPC has two main functions: to influence public opinion and government policies in non-Communist countries along lines favorable to Soviet policy goals, and to provide logistical support to Soviet-supported terrorist groups.