- Fossils of burned, waterlogged or desiccated leaves, seeds, fruits or wood of psychoactive plants
- Psychoactive alkaloids in skeletal remains and artifacts
- Residues of alcoholic beverages
- Depictions of drinking scenes or mood-altering plants inspired by inspired by altered states of consciousness
- Prehistoric people used hallucinogens as part of sacred burial rituals
- New study sheds light on drug culture in Tiwanaku, Bolivia
- The ancient origins of the ceremonial Kava drink of the Pacific
Ethnographic studies have long been exploring the place of fermented beverages (beer, fruit wines, rice wine, mead, koumiss, pulque, chicha, among many others) and psychoactive plants, not only hallucinogenic but also narcotic and stimulant (peyote cactus, morning glories seeds, sacred mushrooms, ayahuasca or yaje brew, cohoba, Virola snuffs, coca, tobacco, mescal beans, San Pedro cactus, iboga, betel, kat, pituri, cannabis, nightshade plants, opium poppy, and ephedra, just to offer a few examples) within traditional societies in every corner of the planet, above all in the Americas.